Mathematics is a discipline, that studies change, space, quantity and structure. It is believed, that mathematics is the science of pattern and it seeks patterns in numbers, space, science, computers, abstractions and so on. We`ll solve your protection copy concerns! Mathematicians explores these concepts to formulate new axioms, definitions and conjectures. Mathematics developed from calculation, counting and measurement to the study of the shapes and motions with the help of logical reasoning and abstraction. Basic mathematics has been an important part of everyday life even in ancient societies. It was widely used in ancient Greece and Egypt in house building and town construction. Mathematics continued its development till sixteenth century, when mathematical theories began mixing with discoveries in other sciences, which resulted acceleration in research. Nowadays mathematics is used in every part of life. It is an essential tool in engineering, medicine, natural and social sciences, and the most notable usage of mathematics is in computer sciences and new multimedia. Prehistoric people could count abstract quantities, like days and years and this is considered the beginning of mathematics. From the beginning of human society mathematics was used to do calculations, needed for commerce, taxation and construction. Mathematics was also used to predict astronomical events and measure land – that’s where the term “geometry” comes from. And first of all mathematics needed writing or any other system to record numbers. There were wide diversity of numeral systems in ancient world – the very first one was created by Egyptians. Some civilizations were very skilled in mathematics, for example the Indus Valley civilization invented decimal system similar to the modern one and they understood the concept of zero. Mathematics developed into powerful science since then due to interaction with other sciences, which helped mathematicians to affirm theories and observe different processes, that were important for mathematic axioms or definitions. Sir Isaac Newton was born on 4th January of 1643 and died in 1727. He became one of the greatest English mathematicians and physicians of all times. He also was involved in such researches as astronomy, alchemy, natural philosophy and theology. He published Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 and it’s still believed to be one of the most influential scientific books. For those times it was a real revolution. Newton described gravitation ad laws of motion in it and made a basis for modern engineering. He also removed last doubts about heliocentism. What concerns mathematics, Newton developed differential and integral calculus, as well as Gottfried Leibniz. Newton also contributed in mechanics a lot – principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum; optics and dynamics. Newton and Albert Einstein are considered to be the most influential scientists in all human history of mathematics. First mathematical problems were found in astronomy, commerce, taxation and land measurement. And all mathematical researches help developing other sciences. And reversal, mathematical knowledge that was used in one area proves useful in other areas, even unrelated. And what’s most surprising – the purest mathematics often have practical application in engineering and natural sciences. There is a big difference between pure mathematics and applied mathematics. But as we said, sometimes first one turns out to be applied. Also it’s typical for mathematical knowledge to bring to birth other disciplines, like statistics, computer science and operations research. In other words adjuvant part of mathematics become independent sciences, although closele related to mathematics. In what concerns aesthetics, many scientists often claim that mathematics has certain inner beauty and the most valued qualities are generality and simplicity. Mathematics is the Queen of Sciences according to Carl Friedrich Gauss. However, there a few attempts to reduce mathematics to logic – many philosophers states that mathematics can’t be referred as real science. But the fact that mathematical theories are hypothetico-deductive proves reversal thing – maths is the real science. Karl Popper wrote that mathematics is much closer to the natural sciences, than it has been believed recently. But some philosophers applied an idea of falsificationism to mathematics, as Imre Lakatos. Mathematics has much in common with physics and other natuarl sciences – their methods are similar in exploration of logical assumptions and consequences. As mathematicians aren’t awarded with Nobel Prizes, there are several important mathematicians only awards. Fields Medal is the most prestigious award in mathematics – it is awarded one time in 4 years. Other honorary prizes are The Wolf Prize in Mathematics, the Abel Prize. Also mathematicians are awarded for solving problems from “Millennium Prize Problems”, which was published in 2000.
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